The irony of South African citizenship: Citizens with no rights

In a Neoliberal world, what really constitutes a citizen?

Citizenship is a hotly debated (and currently loaded) topic worldwide. Related to this idea of citizenship is the Trumpesque phenomena which is sweeping across the globe and which seems to have a common denominator amongst its main supporters. This common denominator is the ideal of wanting to prioritize one group of people (their survival and success) at all costs, even sometimes to the detriment of others around them.

I do not intend, in this post, to delve into the politics and complexities of nation states, nor do I wish to make a political statement. I simply intend to extract a few key points from the notion of citizenship and to make mention of how a distorted view of citizenship affects schools, communities and our learners (which as noted in a previous blog post, are part of a cycle of unending poverty and inequality that is infamous for being the highest in the world).

Firstly, the term citizen refers to a person who belongs to a particular country. This person enjoys certain rights, privileges and powers that come with being a part of this country. For example, South African citizens, have the right (and power) to vote and to enjoy the advantages that come with this right. Citizenship also guarantees you certain privileges with other nations. For example, South African citizens are able to travel to over 100 countries without the need to obtain a visa. A citizen also has the power to make meaningful inputs in the economic, social and religious aspects of life in that country. The idea of citizenship therefore is closely linked to the ideas of sovereignty, self-government, independence and success. It is when the latter becomes polluted, distorted and poisoned that we see social atrocities (such as inequality) abounding in society.

According to the UN, there are around 10 million stateless people across the globe[1]. These people do not enjoy the rights and privileges that come with one’s home nation. Instead they are considered ‘second-class citizens’, due to usually no fault of their own. Syrian refugees, former Yugoslavians and the Rohingya are in some way or the other considered stateless and therefore ‘second-class’ (because of the discrimination they face on a daily basis).

What does any of this have to do with South Africa’s education and our learners?

Well, the majority of South African’s live well below the poverty line and the reality is that living in a modern Neoliberal, Capitalist world has meant that the notion of a public good (what is good for the public) has changed over time. States no longer need to provide (healthcare, education, sanitation, etc) for their citizenry as in previous years. The main reason for the provision of public goods (by the government) has, in the past, generally been to sustain the nation during and/or after a war or during a natural disaster such as a famine, drought or health epidemic.

Today, however, there are many privately owned companies that function on market forces known as demand-and-supply to ensure that people are provided for. Everything and anything thinkable can be found on the market in a Neoliberal world. Healthcare, food provision, education, sanitation, correctional facilities, etc. These Neoliberal[2] and Capitalist institutions, however, only have one motivator – Profit. It is what defines Capitalism (Wilson 2011). It is what encapsulates Neoliberalism. We therefore see many (if not the majority) of people who end up not being able to purchase these commodified ‘products’ of healthcare, education, sanitation, correctional facilities (Giroux, 2015), etc, simply because they cannot afford the ridiculously steep prices!

Healthcare, Education and other life-giving rights should (I contend) never be sold as products, but our nations reality is that those who live in poverty and who are well below the poverty line are forced to follow the status quo, even if they cannot afford these products (or what I consider rights). They are often branded as second-class citizens (Bond, 2013) because of their poverty. They are stateless. They cannot enjoy the privileges and rights that should accompany being a citizen of the country.

In other words, the transformation of the public good (to a now neoliberal, capitalist-provided public good) has changed the fabric of citizenry. Citizens that have money will have access to the public good. These citizens are able to express their rights and responsibilities in ways that afford them opportunities and privileges. The majority of poor South Africans have no such opportunity. They cannot get a decent quality education; they do not have access to quality healthcare. They are second-class citizens. They have no true access to the public good (by which I mean the notion of that which benefits all of society, not just a handful of capitalist disciples).

The entire education system suffers when our own poor citizens cannot access the same quality of education as our rich citizens (Barry, 2018). Being citizens of the same country, should we not be able to access the same rights? Should we not be able to enjoy the same benefits? Is it only the rich that can access their rights? This is the Trumpesque phenomena at play. Only a select group of people seem to be benefitting in society, to the detriment of all others. In South Africa’s case it is the rich who are benefitting, making the gap between the rich and the poor even greater. The rich in general, don’t seem to be too dismayed and are seemingly acting to hold onto their benefits without considering the poorest amongst them.

Personally, working in a school that is filled to the brim with citizens who are making their rights, privileges and responsibilities count in every conceivable way, has really opened my eyes to the dark underbelly of South Africa’s citizenship irony. I cannot confine myself to working only in, with and around my privileged environment. I must venture out and provide assistance to those learners (citizens) that are considered second-class, irrespective of where they might be. I must break with the Trumpesque mentality of ‘me first’ and ensure that everyone I come into contact with has the opportunity of enjoying the rights and privileges that are afforded to them as citizens of the Republic of South Africa. I must consider others needs before my own wants.

May we all be first-class citizens in pursuit of peace, social justice and harmony.

Works Cited

Barry, K.B., 2018. The Right to Education Movements and Policies: Promises and Realities. NORRAG.

Bond, P, 2013. Debt, Uneven Development and Capitalist Crisis in South Africa: from Moody’s macroeconomic monitoring to Marikana microfinance mashonisas , Third World Quarterly, 34:4, 569-592

Giroux, G, 2015. Education and the Crisis of Public Values: Challenging the Assault on Teachers, Students, and Public Education. 2nd ed. New York: Peter Lang Inc.

Wilson, K, 2011. ‘Race’, Gender and Neoliberalism: changing visual representations in development, Third World Quarterly, 32:2, 315-331.

[1] There are conflicting reports as some UN documents refer to 12 million and others around 10 million. In any case, the number is unnecessarily high.


Science for Change vs Science for ‘Fun’

Should South Africa invest in fundamental research?

We all want to save the world or at least have a positive impact on our communities. This is evident even when you ask a child from kindergarten what they want to be when they’re older, most would answer: a doctor, a police officer, or lawyer. Whenever I give talks at public outreach events I always get this question: “How does astronomy advance our lives?”. Frankly, I haven’t figured out how to successfully tackle it. This question always haunts me, especially when I meet with colleagues from the health sciences. A staff member in my department once said “Your kind of research is a hobby for rich people.”, I am certain that many people share the same sentiments.

Shouldn’t I be using my big brains for the betterment of humankind?

Fig3South Africa’s unemployment rate is currently around 29% with youth unemployment at 58.2%. We have the highest inequality index in the world, our public health institutes are deteriorating, and the condition of schools in the rural areas is appalling. With all these issues we are facing which threaten basic human rights, should South African scientists spend their time trying to figure out what dark energy is? Should the government pour funds into fundamental research?

    Fundamental research is driven by curiosity and desire to expand knowledge in a specific research area. Applied research, on the other hand, aims to solve specific problems and its findings have immediate practical implications. The recent white paper on science, technology and innovation maps out the direction that the Department of Science and Innovation will embark on in the years to come. The core emphasis of the white paper is inclusivity, transformation and partnerships. It is also strongly aligned with the national development goals and the sustainable development goals.


Although there is a strong pull towards applied research, the government still aims to fund and support fundamental research. In spite of the fact that applied research has an immediate impact, curiosity-driven research is at the core of many medical breakthroughs and technology advancement. The fruits of scientific and technological development in astronomy, especially in optics and electronics, are evident across various fields including aerospace and medicine.

    Nobel Laureate and radio astronomer Martin Ryle developed the technique of aperture synthesis which was later transferred to the medical field. This technology is now used in computerised tomography (CAT scanners), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and many other medical imaging tools. These tools have revolutionised the diagnosis of brain tumours, chronic changes in lung tissue and coronary artery disease.

    Laser physics is another archetypal example of how a discovery in basic physics led to a world-changing invention. Lasers (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) would never have been developed without a profound understanding of the quantum theory. The principle behind the laser goes back to the world’s most famous physicist, Albert Einstein, who in 1917 proposed a theory of stimulated light emission. Lasers are now used in medicine for various purposes including cancer treatment. They are also used in communications and industry to send information over long distances (optical fibres), to make precise trimmings, etc.

     Fig1The above examples prove that fundamental and applied research have a synergistic relationship. Fundamental research is essential for the further development of applied research. My final thought is that we should not abandon fundamental research. It is through these crazy, sometimes wild, ideas that we will be able to make groundbreaking discoveries that will advance humankind. I’m probably that cat that was killed by curiosity and now in another life, I still have not given it up!